Calculus for Educators Appendix C

All professional education content courses leading to certification shall include teaching and assessment of the Wisconsin Content Standards in the content area.

In this column, list the Wisconsin Content Standards that are included in this course. The Standards for each content area are found in the Wisconsin Content Standards document.

In this column, indicate the nature of the performance assessments used in this course to evaluate student proficiency in each standard.

The structures within the discipline, the historical roots and evolving nature of mathematics, and the interaction between technology and the discipline.

Many historical topics are discussed in this survey course of the single variable calculus. Graphing calculators and the computer algebra system Mathematica are used to demonstrate concepts and procedures. Students are assessed through homework, the final exam, and small oral presentations.

Facilitating the building of student conceptual and procedural understanding.

Focus is given to the variety of ways (graphical, numerical, verbal, and algebraic) in which calculus concepts may be understood by students.

Helping all students build understanding of the discipline including:

. Confidence in their abilities to utilize mathematical knowledge.

. Awareness of the usefulness of mathematics.

. The economic implications of fine mathematical preparation.

Students are tested on their ability to apply the mathematical knowledge gained in the course to problems on homework and tests. The usefulness of mathematics is particularly emphasized when topics such as: differential equations and integral applications are discussed.

Exploring, conjecturing, examining and testing all aspects of problem solving.

Aspects of problem-solving are assessed on homework and the final examination.

Formulating and posing worthwhile mathematical tasks, solving problems using several strategies, evaluating results, generalizing solutions, using problem solving approaches effectively, and applying mathematical modeling to real-world situations.

Most problem sets contain some application problems.

Making convincing mathematical arguments, framing mathematical questions and conjectures, formulating counter-examples, constructing and evaluating arguments, and using intuitive, informal exploration and formal proof.

Students asked to construct convincing mathematical arguments in class as well as on tests.

Expressing ideas orally, in writing, and visually-, using mathematical language, notation, and symbolism; translating mathematical ideas between and among contexts.

Students are challenged to show their work on homework and final exam problems. A paper of significant length contributes one-third of the final grade for the course.

Connecting the concepts and procedures of mathematics, drawing connections between mathematical strands, between mathematics and other disciplines, and with daily life.

Daily problem assignments are made to assess the student's ability to connect concepts with procedures.

Selecting appropriate representations to facilitate mathematical problem solving and translating between and among representations to explicate problem-solving situations.

A variety of approaches (graphical, algebraic, numeric, and verbal) to posing and solving problems is emphasized.

Mathematical processes including:

. Problem solving.

. Communication.

. Reasoning and formal and informal argument.

. Mathematical connections.

. Representations.

. Technology.

Homework problems are of two types; exercise and problem-solving. Students are required to justify answers through informal arguments. Use of graphing calculators and computer algebra systems is helpful for some problems.

Number operations and relationships from both abstract and concrete perspectives identifying real world applications, and representing and connecting mathematical concepts and procedures including:

. Number sense.

. Set theory.

. Number and operation.

. Composition and decomposition of numbers, including place value, primes, factors, multiples, inverses, and the extension of these concepts throughout mathematics.

. Number systems through the real numbers, their properties and relations.

. Computational procedures.

. Proportional reasoning.

. Number theory.

The structure and properties of real and complex numbers is an emphasized topic. Some number theory results are treated to illustrate application of geometric series and other proofs based on series expansions For example, proof of the irrationality of e based on its Maclaurin series expansion, proof of the structure of even perfect numbers based on finite geometric series.

Mathematical concepts and procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level number operations and relationships including:

. Advanced counting procedures, including union and intersection of sets, and parenthetical operations.

. Algebraic and transcendental numbers.

. The complex number system, including polar coordinates.

. Approximation techniques as a basis for numerical integration, fractals, and numerical-based proofs.

. Situations in which numerical arguments presented in a variety of classroom and real-world situations (e.g., political, economic, scientific, social) can be created and critically evaluated.

. Opportunities in which acceptable limits of error can be assessed (e.g., evaluating strategies, testing the reasonableness of results, and using technology to carry out computations).

The accuracy of numerical differentiation and integration formulas is discussed and error bounds are derived. Students are expected to exhibit a familiarity with these results on homework and examination problems.

Geometry and measurement from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and mathematical concepts, procedures and connections among them including:

. Formal and informal argument.

. Names, properties, and relationships of two- and three-dimensional shapes.

. Spatial sense.

. Spatial reasoning and the use of geometric models to represent, visualize, and solve problems.

. Transformations and the ways in which rotation, reflection, and translation of shapes can illustrate concepts, properties, and relationships.

. Coordinate geometry systems including relations between coordinate and synthetic geometry, and generalizing geometric principles from a two-dimensional system to a three-dimensional system.

. Concepts of measurement, including measurable attributes, standard and non-standard units, precision and accuracy, and use of appropriate tools.

. The structure of systems of measurement, including the development and use of measurement systems and the relationships among different systems. Measurement including length, area, volume, size of angles, weight and mass, time, temperature, and money.

. Measuring, estimating, and using measurement to describe and compare geometric phenomena.

. Indirect measurement and its uses, including developing formulas and procedures for determining measure to solve problems.

Students must show a mastery of quite a bit of planar analytic geometry. Measuring areas and volumes are fundamental problems of calculus and appear in homework and exam questions.

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level geometry and measurement including:

. Systems of geometry, including Euclidean, non-Euclidean, coordinate, transformational, and projective geometry.

. Transformations, coordinates, and vectors and their use in problem solving. Three-dimensional geometry and its generalization to other dimensions. Topology, including topological properties and transformations.

. Opportunities to present convincing arguments by means of demonstration, informal proof, counter-examples, or other logical means to show the truth of statements and/or generalizations.

Students are tested over their ability to present convincing arguments. Sometimes this is accomplished through counter-examples or indirect proof. Emphasis in the course is placed on proving propositions that are usually left unproven in an undergraduate calculus course. Students are responsible for recreating some of these proofs on homework and the final.

Statistics and probability from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and the mathematical concepts, procedures and the connections between them including:

. Use of data to explore real-world issues.

. The process of investigation including formulation of a problem, designing a data collection plan, and collecting, recording, and organizing data.

. Data representation through graphs, tables, and summary statistics to describe data distributions, central tendency, and variance.

. Analysis and interpretation of data.

. Randomness, sampling, and inference.

. Probability as a way to describe chances or risk in simple and compound events.

. Outcome prediction based on experimentation or theoretical probabilities.

None.

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level statistics and probability including:

. Use of the random variable in the generation and interpretation of probability distributions.

. Descriptive and inferential statistics, measures of disbursement, including validity and reliability, and correlation.

. Probability theory and its link to inferential statistics.

. Discrete and continuous probability distributions as bases for inference.

. Situations in which students can analyze, evaluate, and critique the methods and conclusions of statistical experiments reported in journals, magazines, news media, advertising, etc.

None.

Functions, algebra, and basic concepts underlying calculus from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and the mathematical concepts, procedures and the connections among them including:

. Patterns.

. Functions as used to describe relations and to model real world situations.

. Representations of situations that involve variable quantities with expressions, equations and inequalities and that include algebraic and geometric relationships.

. Multiple representations of relations, the strengths and limitations of each representation, and conversion from one representation to another.

. Attributes of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, algebraic, and exponential functions.

. Operations on expressions and solution of equations, systems of equations and inequalities using concrete, informal, and formal methods.

. Underlying concepts of calculus, including rate of change, limits, and approximations for irregular areas.

The analysis of functions of a single variable is the principal objective of the course. Students are required to show mastery of elementary calculus concepts, such as, limits, differentiability, and continuity in this context. Some equation - solving required as a subtask to many problems in the homework and on tests. Some work with inequalities (making bounds: upper and lower) is also assessed on problems and the final exam.

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level functions, algebra, and concepts of calculus including:

. Concepts of calculus, including limits (epsilon-delta) and tangents, derivatives, integrals, and sequences and series.

. Modeling to solve problems.

. Calculus techniques including finding limits, derivatives, integrals, and using special rules.

. Calculus applications including modeling, optimization, velocity and acceleration, area, volume, and center of mass.

. Numerical and approximation techniques including Simpson's rule, trapezoidal rule, Newton's Approximation, and linearization.

. Multivariate calculus.

. Differential equations.

Students must show mastery of basic and advanced concepts of single variable calculus and apply them in problem-solving situations. These topics include almost all of the topics listed at left. Mastery is demonstrated on the final exam, homework, small oral presentations, answering questions in class and an assigned paper.

Discrete processes from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and the mathematical concepts, procedures and the connections among them including:

. Counting techniques.

. Representation and analysis of discrete mathematics problems using sequences, graph theory, arrays, and networks.

. Iteration and recursion.

Iteration and recursion arises in when discussing some topics, such as: series, sequences, Newton's method, solving first-order differential equations graphically with slope fields, approximating irrational numbers, etc.

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level discrete mathematics including:

. Topics, including symbolic logic, induction, linear programming, and finite graphs.

. Matrices as a mathematical system, and matrices and matrix operations as tools for recording information and for solving problems.

. Developing and analyzing algorithms.

Some induction proofs assigned. Calculus techniques are used to analyze some algorithms. Some algorithms based on calculus concepts (for example, Newton's method) are thoroughly discussed.




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