Math for Elementary Teachers II Appendix C

All professional education content courses leading to certification shall include teaching and assessment of the Wisconsin Content Standards in the content area.

In this column, list the Wisconsin Content Standards that are included in this course. The Standards for each content area are found in the Wisconsin Content Standards document.

In this column, indicate the nature of the performance assessments used in this course to evaluate student proficiency in each standard.

The structures within the discipline, the historical roots and evolving nature of mathematics, and the interaction between technology and the discipline.

Both computers and calculators are used to develop mathematical ideas, solve problems, and to study the structure of mathematics.

Facilitating the building of student conceptual and procedural understanding.

Homework, tests, and labs using both computers, models, and manipulatives focus on conceptual understanding and how / why procedures/ algorithms work. Students are assessed on their understanding and ability to model the use of manipulatives both in lab/homework and on tests. Manipulatives such as base blocks, Cuisenaire rods, pattern blocks, and polydrons, are used to model mathematical concepts and principles.

Helping all students build understanding of the discipline including:

. Confidence in their abilities to utilize mathematical knowledge.

. Awareness of the usefulness of mathematics.

. The economic implications of fine mathematical preparation.

The focus of the course is building understanding of mathematics and is demonstrated through labs in class in the computer lab, homework, tests, and projects. Applications, especially through projects and labs build confidence and awareness of the usefulness of mathematics.

Exploring, conjecturing, examining and testing all aspects of problem solving.

Through labs, homework, and tests, students demonstrate their knowledge of strategies. Labs provide an environment for exploring, conjecturing, and solving problems. This is an area of focus in the course and is utilized throughout the semester.

Formulating and posing worthwhile mathematical tasks, solving problems using several strategies, evaluating results, generalizing solutions, using problem solving approaches effectively, and applying mathematical modeling to real-world situations.

As pre-service teachers, students create mathematical tasks/problems for future students to solve both in lab and on written assessments (homework, tests) Students also share their problems and solutions in class and compare strategies.

Making convincing mathematical arguments, framing mathematical questions and conjectures, formulating counter-examples, constructing and evaluating arguments, and using intuitive, informal exploration and formal proof.

Proofs without words, using models and diagrams in labs, homework, and tests. Inductive and deductive arguments are developed when focusing on patterns (specific to general) shared in small group discussion, homework and tests.

Expressing ideas orally, in writing, and visually-, using mathematical language, notation, and symbolism; translating mathematical ideas between and among contexts.

Student questions/responses in class discussion and lab setting. Student response demonstrating correct use of appropriate mathematical language, symbolism, and notation on homework, labs, projects, and tests.

Connecting the concepts and procedures of mathematics, drawing connections between mathematical strands, between mathematics and other disciplines, and with daily life.

Students ability to solve practical problems using technology and paper and pencil methods on labs, homework, and tests. Completion (and demonstration) of a technology integrated project connecting mathematics and other disciplines and daily life.

Selecting appropriate representations to facilitate mathematical problem solving and translating between and among representations to explicate problem-solving situations.

Students share their representation methods used in solving problems and discuss these in a lab setting. Discussing advantages and disadvantages of these approaches.

Mathematical processes including:

. Problem solving.

. Communication.

. Reasoning and formal and informal argument.

. Mathematical connections.

. Representations.

. Technology.

As a standards based math curriculum, students exhibit their abilities related to problem solving, communication, reasoning, representations, connections, and use of technology through discussion, labs, projects, homework, and tests (applied to the current math content topic).

Number operations and relationships from both abstract and concrete perspectives identifying real world applications, and representing and connecting mathematical concepts and procedures including:

. Number sense.

. Set theory.

. Number and operation.

. Composition and decomposition of numbers, including place value, primes, factors, multiples, inverses, and the extension of these concepts throughout mathematics.

. Number systems through the real numbers, their properties and relations.

. Computational procedures.

. Proportional reasoning.

. Number theory.

Number sense, number and operations, number systems, and computational procedures as related to rational numbers and integers are a focus of this course. Students demonstrate their knowledge in class discussion, through homework, labs, projects, and tests.

Set theory, in particular set operations as used to solve probability problems, are assessed through labs, homework, and exams.

Number systems through the real numbers, their properties and relations, and proportional reasoning are assessed through homework, labs, and tests.

Number theory focusing on divisibility and the fundamental theorem of arithmetic is assessed through homework, labs, and exams.

Mathematical concepts and procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level number operations and relationships including:

. Advanced counting procedures, including union and intersection of sets, and parenthetical operations.

. Algebraic and transcendental numbers.

. The complex number system, including polar coordinates.

. Approximation techniques as a basis for numerical integration, fractals, and numerical-based proofs.

. Situations in which numerical arguments presented in a variety of classroom and real-world situations (e.g., political, economic, scientific, social) can be created and critically evaluated.

. Opportunities in which acceptable limits of error can be assessed (e.g., evaluating strategies, testing the reasonableness of results, and using technology to carry out computations).

Counting procedures, set operations (including union, intersection, and complement) and parenthetical operations are demonstrated through lab work, homework, and quizzes.

Estimation and approximation techniques are used to check the reasonableness of results, especially in problem solving situations in the homework and in the lab.

Calculators and computers are used to carry out complicated computations.

Geometry and measurement from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and mathematical concepts, procedures and connections among them including:

. Formal and informal argument.

. Names, properties, and relationships of two- and three-dimensional shapes.

. Spatial sense.

. Spatial reasoning and the use of geometric models to represent, visualize, and solve problems.

. Transformations and the ways in which rotation, reflection, and translation of shapes can illustrate concepts, properties, and relationships.

. Coordinate geometry systems including relations between coordinate and synthetic geometry, and generalizing geometric principles from a two-dimensional system to a three-dimensional system.

. Concepts of measurement, including measurable attributes, standard and non-standard units, precision and accuracy, and use of appropriate tools.

. The structure of systems of measurement, including the development and use of measurement systems and the relationships among different systems. Measurement including length, area, volume, size of angles, weight and mass, time, temperature, and money.

. Measuring, estimating, and using measurement to describe and compare geometric phenomena.

. Indirect measurement and its uses, including developing formulas and procedures for determining measure to solve problems.

Informal argument, proofs without words, through models and diagrams are used by the student in lab, homework, and tests.

Names, properties, relationships of three-dimensional objects, spatial sense, spatial reasoning and the use of geometric models are used to represent, visualize, and solve problems, and are assessed through labs using models such as polydrons and 3-d solids, homework, and tests.

Concepts of measurement and estimation, including measuring attributes, standard and non-standard units, precision, accuracy, and use of non-standard units to measure surface area and volume are assessed through discussion in class lab, use of computer software, homework, and tests.

Indirect measurements using similarity are assessed using labs, homework, and exams.

The structure of systems of measurement, including the development and use of measurement systems and the relationships among different systems, are assessed through discussion in class lab, use of computer software, and through homework and exams.

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level geometry and measurement including:

. Systems of geometry, including Euclidean, non-Euclidean, coordinate, transformational, and projective geometry.

. Transformations, coordinates, and vectors and their use in problem solving. Three-dimensional geometry and its generalization to other dimensions. Topology, including topological properties and transformations.

. Opportunities to present convincing arguments by means of demonstration, informal proof, counter-examples, or other logical means to show the truth of statements and/or generalizations.

Euclidean and transformational geometry concepts, procedures and connections are assessed with three-dimensional objects in class discussion, lab, homework, projects, and tests.

Opportunities to present convincing arguments by means of demonstration, informal proof, counter-examples, or other logical means to show the truth of statements and/or generalizations are given in class, lab, through the use of computer software and in tests.

Statistics and probability from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and the mathematical concepts, procedures and the connections between them including:

. Use of data to explore real-world issues.

. The process of investigation including formulation of a problem, designing a data collection plan, and collecting, recording, and organizing data.

. Data representation through graphs, tables, and summary statistics to describe data distributions, central tendency, and variance.

. Analysis and interpretation of data.

. Randomness, sampling, and inference.

. Probability as a way to describe chances or risk in simple and compound events.

. Outcome prediction based on experimentation or theoretical probabilities.

Use of data to explore real-world issues is assessed through in class labs and homework.

 

The process of investigation including formulation of a problem, collecting, recording, and organizing data is assessed through labs, homework, and tests.

 

Data representation through graphs, tables, and summary statistics to describe data distributions, central tendency, and spread are assessed through labs, homework, and exams.

 

Randomness, probability as a way to describe chances or risk in simple and compound events, and outcome analysis and prediction based on experimentation or theoretical probabilities are assessed through labs, through the use of software, and homework, projects, and tests.

 

Data collection for experiments using real game implements both from our present culture and implements from previous cultures and cultures outside the United States used by students in labs, homework, projects, and exams.

 

 

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level statistics and probability including:

. Use of the random variable in the generation and interpretation of probability distributions.

. Descriptive and inferential statistics, measures of disbursement, including validity and reliability, and correlation.

. Probability theory and its link to inferential statistics.

. Discrete and continuous probability distributions as bases for inference.

. Situations in which students can analyze, evaluate, and critique the methods and conclusions of statistical experiments reported in journals, magazines, news media, advertising, etc.

Descriptive statistics and situations where students analyze, evaluate, and critique methods and conclusions based on probability experiments are used in labs, homework, and projects.

Functions, algebra, and basic concepts underlying calculus from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and the mathematical concepts, procedures and the connections among them including:

. Patterns.

. Functions as used to describe relations and to model real world situations.

. Representations of situations that involve variable quantities with expressions, equations and inequalities and that include algebraic and geometric relationships.

. Multiple representations of relations, the strengths and limitations of each representation, and conversion from one representation to another.

. Attributes of polynomial, rational, trigonometric, algebraic, and exponential functions.

. Operations on expressions and solution of equations, systems of equations and inequalities using concrete, informal, and formal methods.

. Underlying concepts of calculus, including rate of change, limits, and approximations for irregular areas.

Functions and algebra from both a concrete and abstract perspective are used in the study of patterns, relations, representatives of real world situations.

Multiple representations of relations and the advantages/disadvantages are discussed in class and lab. These concepts and principles are assessed through labs, homework, and tests.

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level functions, algebra, and concepts of calculus including:

. Concepts of calculus, including limits (epsilon-delta) and tangents, derivatives, integrals, and sequences and series.

. Modeling to solve problems.

. Calculus techniques including finding limits, derivatives, integrals, and using special rules.

. Calculus applications including modeling, optimization, velocity and acceleration, area, volume, and center of mass.

. Numerical and approximation techniques including Simpson's rule, trapezoidal rule, Newton's Approximation, and linearization.

. Multivariate calculus.

. Differential equations.

Concrete models are used to solve problems, demonstrate mathematical concepts and procedures. These models are demonstrated and discussed by students in lab using manipulatives and computer software, as well as being assessed in homework, and tests.

Discrete processes from both abstract and concrete perspectives and to identify real world applications, and the mathematical concepts, procedures and the connections among them including:

. Counting techniques.

. Representation and analysis of discrete mathematics problems using sequences, graph theory, arrays, and networks.

. Iteration and recursion.

Basic counting techniques and analysis of patterns are used in solving problems. Labs, homework, and tests are used to assess these ideas.

 

Mathematical concepts, procedures, and the connections among them for teaching upper level discrete mathematics including:

. Topics, including symbolic logic, induction, linear programming, and finite graphs.

. Matrices as a mathematical system, and matrices and matrix operations as tools for recording information and for solving problems.

. Developing and analyzing algorithms.

Students develop and analyze algorithms for probability applications and to study geometric principles. These are assessed using labs, homework, and exams.




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